Ornithologi

A studio for bird study

Tag: painting

An Illustration of Some Members of the Genus Buteo

by Bryce W. Robinson

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18×24″ Gouache on watercolor paper. From top left: Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni), Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus), and Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis). Purchase limited edition prints here.

I’ve been illustrating raptors in flight for some years now, which really took off when I met Jerry Liguori. Jerry took me under his wing, so to speak, and filled my head with everything he himself has learned over his many years studying the identification of raptors, particularly in flight. His tutelage accelerated my skills and knowledge in raptor identification, and I can confidently say that without his selfless teaching, my illustrations wouldn’t be the same.

I’m currently focused on tuning in my raptors in flight. I am about to start some large illustration projects focused on these taxa, so I am working to develop my technique and process as well perfecting relative shape and sizes. It’s a challenge, because illustrating each correctly involves so much more than the obvious differences in plumage. What makes each unique are shape, proportion, and posture. I’ve found posture to be the most challenging aspect to capture, since this seemingly simple factor has so much power over whether the bird looks real or not. Furthermore, in flight postures and shapes are influenced by the direction and motion of a bird in that moment in time. For instance, a bird soaring has a unique shape but because of the position of the viewer, that shape may be different for each wing because of the birds posture and how wind or resistance bends the outer primaries. To understand and master this effect is going to take repeated sketching and exploration.

Purchase an 18×24″ limited edition archival print (30 available) of this illustration in the shop. Your support helps me continue to refine my illustration, so thank you ahead of time! Also, be sure to add Jerry Liguori’s unique guidebooks to your library. Jerry has taken raptor identification to the next level, and his guidebooks are a wealth of information for mastering in-flight identification. You can find his books here: Jerry Liguori’s Hawk’s From Every Angle and Hawks at a Distance

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Illustration of the Vultures of Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique

by Bryce W. Robinson

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Vultures of Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique, including the White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus), White-headed Vulture (Trigonoceps occidentalis), Lappet-faced Vulture (Torgos tracheliotos), Hooded Vulture (Nechrosyrtes monachus), and Palm-nut Vulture (Gypohierax angolensis).  16×20″ gouache on watercolor board. Image copyright Bryce W. Robinson.

My friend Teague Scott, a master’s student at Boise State University, researches the movement ecology of old world vultures, namely the White-headed Vulture and White-backed Vulture. Teague conducts his work in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique, a place with a tortured history as it was devastated by civil war to the point that little large animals remained.

In 2004, Greg Carr, an Idaho based philanthropist, took it upon himself to revitalize the park. What he undertook was a massive collaborative effort aimed at rewilding Gorongosa, involving the local people thus instilling a land ethic and raising their quality of life through employment. Among many academic institutions, he also involved Boise State University and the Intermountain Bird Observatory to provide the opportunity for graduate students to conduct research in the park.

What this effort has become is a resounding success. To find out more about Gorongosa, visit the parks website. Here you will find information on the history of the park, the projects that the park supports, as well as information on opportunities to visit. Be sure to also take the opportunity to watch the numerous videos that provide a glimpse at the natural wonders of Africa.

If you have a love for vultures, and you would like a print of this image then you can purchase one in the shop.

Dark Morph Red-tailed Hawk Illustration and A Note on Plumage Polymorphism in Raptors

by Bryce W. Robinson

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Dark morph western Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis calurus). 20×30″ Gouache on watercolor board. Prints available in the shop!

Ornithologists have long been after explanations for why we see plumage polymorphism (multiple different color types) within a single bird species. There are countless examples of polymorphic species, the most belonging to the group referred to as diurnal raptors (members of Accipitriformes and Falconiformes), where polymorphism has convergently evolved multiple times.

There are two main hypotheses that aim to explain the mechanisms behind polymorphism in raptors, both of which assert that color morphs are a result of predator-prey dynamics. I’ve listed these below, along with an explanation of each:

Apostatic Selection Hypothesis: Color morphs result from predator-prey dynamics, where keen prey readily recognize common color morphs. Less common color morphs then have the advantage, where prey do not as readily recognize the threat giving the predator the edge it needs to be successful. Under this hypothesis we would expect polymorphism to be more prevalent in species that hunt in static environments. Tested many times, this hypothesis has not been shown to best explain the occurrence and maintenance of polymorphism in raptors. An additional complication is that we would expect the frequency of morphs to drift over time, much like the classic predator-prey dynamic patterns we see (consider Hudson Bay Trading Company data for Lynx and Hare populations in the 1800’s). This is because as one color type gains the advantage, they become more successful and vice versa until that color type is then the most common and the pattern begins to swing the other way. To my knowledge, I am not aware of this occurring in raptors.

Niche Variation (Disruptive Selection) Hypothesis: Color morphs result from predator-prey dynamics, where variable environmental conditions provide success to particular color morphs. This variable success may differ between populations, or species creating differing frequencies of color morphs, i.e. the ratio between dark and light birds. For instance, consider the ratio between color morphs in Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), where dark birds in the west (B. j. calurus) are the less common morph, but dark birds in the boreal north (B. j. harlani) are the most common morph. Ambient light conditions may favor one morph over another, depending on the time of day, weather, or if a bird hunts in a variety of habitats such as the bright open lands and dark understory. Thus, morphs are resultant from niche partitioning into variable environmental conditions. Supporting this notion are observations within a species where particular morphs differ in their foraging strategies. This Niche Variation hypothesis has been supported to best explain plumage polymorphism in raptors many times, and for various reasons. However, I’m still left with some questions for how this hypothesis fits in a few model species.

For a full understanding of the difference between these hypotheses and why disruptive selection best explains polymorphic plumages in raptors, see Tate and Amar (2017), Galeotti and Rubolini (2004), Roulin and Wink (2004), and Fowlie and Kruger (2003).

The Red-tailed Hawk is a widespread and common, highly polytypic species that exhibits varying degrees of plumage polymorphism throughout its range. For instance, B. j. borealis in eastern North America has relatively no polymorphism, whereas  B. j. calurus in western North America exhibits wide plumage variation unrelated to sex. Additionally, B. j. harlani in the boreal north is also polymorphic but differs from calurus where the proportion of color morphs is opposite, dark being the most frequent phenotype (as mentioned above).

In this species, the two hypotheses explaining the development and facilitation of polymorphism seems to fit. However, there remain a few questions unanswered.

Do different morphs of Red-tailed Hawk show different foraging strategies? I thought of this idea when I was considering the maintenance of polymorphism in calurus. I think this is an interesting question, and as far as I’m aware has not been investigated. It is a relatively simple undertaking to discover the answer, so I look forward to someone taking the opportunity to investigate.

In the interior west, I question the regularity of dark morphs and polymorphism as a result of varying environmental conditions because of the lack of large forest and this hawk’s hunting strategy even if these forests were prevalent, the less variable environmental conditions related to weather, and the fact that many dark morphs are resident rather than migratory, so likely hunt in the same geographic area year round. Still, their prevalence in this population could be an artifact of gene flow from coastal populations of the north west and those of the forests of British Columbia. I’m only speculating here, and perhaps I’m missing something so I welcome discussion on the matter.

Why is there relatively no polymorphism in borealis? This taxon frequents forest edge, in areas that seem to either not differ or have higher levels of variation in environmental conditions when compared to it’s polymorphic relatives. This is a burning question and I would love to have a discussion with anyone who has ideas.

Population size was suggested to be the main correlative factor involved in the presence of polymorphism, because larger populations experience more variable conditions, have higher mutation rates, and thus a higher chance for the development and maintenance of these traits. This makes sense, but still leaves me questioning why there are no dark borealis especially considering their presence west of the edge of the eastern hardwood.

Of course, patterns that we see throughout the range of the highly polytypic and polymorphic Red-tailed Hawk beg the curious to dive into research aimed at understanding why we see geographic patterns in plumage types (consider harlani, kriderii, fuertesi, etc.). Some are intuitive and likely resultant of the obvious explanation of environmental factors, i.e. taxa that inhabit more open habitats are lighter. However there remains puzzlers like borealis.

Apart from Red-tailed Hawk there are others that leave me questioning. Although plumage polymorphism in the Gyrfalcon may fit the Niche Variation Hypothesis to some degree, I’m not convinced. Why do we see polymorphism, and the patterns of such, in this species?

Always fun to consider is polymorphism in other taxa apart from raptors. One such group are also predatory, the Jaegers (Stercorarius spp.). Why are Parasitic and Pomarine  polymorphic, while Long-tailed is not? I haven’t entered the literature to explore this one quite yet, but it is a nice question.

I’ll probably add to and amend this list of questions over time. Ideally, I would like to amend with explanations or answers. If anyone reads this post that has ideas, answers, or additional queries then please feel free to engage with me and discuss. There’s always something new to consider.

Referenced Literature:

Fowlie, M. K., and O. Kruger. 2003. The evolution of plumage polymorphism in birds of prey and owls: the apostatic selection hypothesis revisited. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16:577-583.

Galeotti, P., and D. Rubolini. 2004. The niche variation hypothesis and the evolution of colour polymorphism in birds: a comparative study of owls, nightjars and raptors. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 82:237–248.

 

*An important note on terminology: the term ‘phase’ is widely misused to refer to color morphs of polytypic species. I implore the community to eliminate the use of this term  in speech and in publication, because it is fundamentally incorrect. Phase refers to a temporary or ephemeral state, one that changes over time. A species that is polymorphic such as the Red-tailed Hawk does not have a ‘dark-phase’, because dark birds remain dark throughout their lives. Their plumage classification does not change. Please do not use ‘phase’ when referring to polymorphic species. Use the term color ‘morph’ or ‘type’.

Singing Coastal Cactus Wren Perched on Coastal Cholla

by Bryce W. Robinson

 

 

The Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) is a polytypic wren (Family: Troglodytidae) that occurs in the arid southwest of North America. The species comprises five subspecies (Following Rea and Weaver 1990). Birds on the coast of southern California differ in appearance slightly from interior groups, primarily in being paler on the flanks where they have less rich and warm tones. The taxonomy of this coastal group has been in flux, but it is currently recognized by Clements, Howard & Moore, and others as C. b. sandiegensis.

A few years ago, I had the pleasure of getting to know this species well while working with nesting birds along the I-10 corridor in California. I can still hear their iconic rattle song as they sing atop cholla in the intense heat of the Sonoran desert. Their nests also stick in my memory. Often in dense and formidable cholla, the species construct a tunnel nest out of grass. These are some of my favorite nests I’ve encountered in all of my time in the field.

I had the pleasure of illustrating this bird for silent auction at the Sea and Sage Audubon Society’s annual benefit dinner. Hopefully it generates some funds for them and finds a good home.

If you like this image and want a print, you can get one HERE.

Referenced Literature: