Ornithologi

A studio for bird study

Tag: tundra

Juvenile Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) in Flight

by Bryce W. Robinson

I’ve included two photos of in-flight juvenile Whimbrel that I took in the first week of August 2016. I’m sharing these images for the simple reason of illustrating how a young juvenile differs from an adult. The age of these birds is told by the overall fresh, clean plumage and relatively short bill. It’s that simple in August. In a few months the bills will grow to a length comparable to the adults and determining age will become more difficult.

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Spurting and Filter Feeding Behaviors of a Juvenile Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis)

by Bryce W. Robinson

 

Apart from its scarcity and place as a formidable ID challenge, juvenile Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis) is an excellent late summer encounter in Alaska because of its focus on feeding and building fat stores for migration. This focus makes the stint a great subject for close proximity observation, photography, and video. Interactive birds that tolerate your respectful but close proximity are the most fun.

While taking advantage of one such bird, I noticed a somewhat atypical feeding behavior. I was able to capture the behavior in the clip above, as the bird sifts through the water, filter feeding in a way, and consumes small items when it happens upon them. I’ve seen this before in other peeps, but it is certainly an uncommon feeding behavior.

Spurting is an even more uncommon feeding behavior, but one that is regular in many shorebird species (Fellows 2013). Fellows (2013) offers the following description of the behavior: “the bird dips its bill into the water for a couple of seconds, or sometimes a bit longer, presumably to obtain food. It then withdraws its bill and slightly pushes its head forward, usually (though not always) with the bill lowered and then ejects or spurts a stream of water, as if ridding itself  of surplus liquid taken in while feeding underwater. The bill is then reinserted in the water and the sequence is repeated“.

I’d never seen anything spurt before until I watched this juvenile Red-necked Stint  filter feed in shallow water this summer. Unfortunately the video above doesn’t capture anything but filtering, but I was able to manage a decent photo of a spurting event.

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Photo 1. A spurting juvenile Red-necked Stint at Safety Sound, Alaska. Note the stream of water trailing from the birds bill.

I feel quite fortunate to bear witness to spurting behavior. Special thanks to my friend Luke for not only knowing the name of the behavior, but also letting me know of a note that names and details the behavior in shorebirds (Fellows 2013). Excellent behavior and excellent birding.

Referenced Literature:

Fellows, B. 2013. Spurting Behaviour in Wading Birds. Wader Study Group Bulletin 120(3) pp. 208-209

White Wagtail Breeding in Teller, Alaska

by Bryce W. Robinson

 

Working again in Nome this summer, although for a relatively short time, provided me with the opportunity to attempt to see some of the birds of the region that I had missed in previous years. One such bird was the White Wagtail (Motacilla alba). Before traveling to Nome, my friend Luke had informed me that he had already seen the species in a lagoon near the Red Knot camp, so my chances were promising.

Red Knot work was in full swing when I reached Nome, which limited the chance to try for the wagtails. In the meantime came a report of a White Wagtail AND a Common Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula) in Teller some 40 miles from our camp. On 5 July, a day of rain and weather, we took advantage of the inability to work with Knots and headed to Teller to try for both birds.

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An alarm calling adult White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) in Teller, Alaska.

When we reached Teller we began the search, more focused on the plover than the wagtail as the bird was a lifer for most in the group and the wagtail was not. After 20 minutes of fruitless plover searching Luke spotted our other target, a wagtail at the north end of the village. Luke and I both set out to photograph and film the bird and soon realized it was carrying food. Another adult appeared, also with food, and our minds tipped to the possibility that these birds bred in the area. Jim (head of the Red Knot project) watched the food carrying adult and followed it back to an electricity box on the side of a nearby building. The bird entered the utility box, and exited without the food. We quickly backed the truck up below the box to gain access and check for nestlings. Sure enough a grass nest sat in the corner of the box containing small nestlings.

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Electricity box containing a White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) nest. Teller, Alaska.

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White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) nest. Teller, Alaska.

After quickly documenting the nesting situation we left and let the adults return to provisioning the young. At the end of the day we left Teller with an excellent experience with White Wagtail, but unfortunately no Common Ringed Plover. Such is birding.

A few weeks later on 22 July, Luke and I returned to Teller on another poor weather day to check on the success of the brood. We soon found multiple juvenile wagtails chasing the adults, begging for food. Luke mentioned that White Wagtail had bred in Teller in years past, but I was left feeling like I had just struck oil – My first White Wagtails, breeding at that!

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Juvenile White Wagtail (Motacilla alba). Teller, Alaska.

The experienced left me excited. I’ve found that the best way to deal with the hangover excitement of a great birding experience is to illustrate, so after the initial sighting of the adults in early July I took advantage of the next day of weather and painted a White Wagtail on the inset of my Nome 2016 sketch journal.

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White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) in the inset of a 2016 field season sketch book for birds of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. 

Seeing a bird species for the first time, and one that is quite uncommon in North America at that, is the best of birding. Especially if it feels like its been a long time coming. To see the bird and gain a first hand account of its breeding habits, well that is something else. It has a context, and context is what makes my experiences fruitful. I love life histories of birds, especially regarding breeding. I consider this experience to be the example of the what I seek when I step out the door aimed at observing birdlife.

July 2016 in Nome, Alaska had some magic, or something. But it seems that it was a continuation of a theme that started in early May. I bet that if you were to ask anyone that traveled to Nome, AK in the summer of 2016 they would agree. It was special summer, and I can’t wait to hear reports of what the fall brings in the region.

Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) Fieldwork in Western Alaska

by Bryce W. Robinson

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Adult Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) captured on the breeding grounds in western Alaska.

On 1 July I travelled to Nome, Alaska to work on roselaari Red Knot research. I’ve spent the last month working on the project, and I’ve learned a great deal. The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has been conducting research on breeding Red Knots for the last seven years on ridge lines outside of Nome. They’ve focused on reproductive monitoring, marking and resighting birds, and determining the timing of arrival and departure on their breeding grounds. The effort has also provided collaboration with folks studying this population on their migratory and wintering grounds. You can read more about the connectivity study here.

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Red Knot research field station. Seward Peninsula, Alaska

I feel fortunate to have joined the work, especially considering that the collaborative study effort on this circumpolar breeding species is growing. This year a researcher from the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) joined the USFWS study effort in Alaska. Jan van Gils Ph.D., whose work was recently featured as the cover article in Science Magazine, joined Jim Johnson and Lucas DeCicco and the USFWS crew to investigate the potential impacts that trophic mismatch may pose on the breeding roselaari Red Knot. It was excellent spending time with Jan, as we discussed many ideas concerning climate change impacts on Red Knots and Arctic life alike.

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Jan van Gils et al. 2016 as featured on the cover of Science Magazine.

Alaska’s Red Knot population breeds on higher elevation rocky tundra. Many ridge lines on the Seward Peninsula are important breeding grounds for Red Knots. With climate change comes impacts to prey populations that the Red Knot needs for successful breeding.

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Red Knot breeding grounds in western Alaska. The low rocky ridge lines surrounding the river valleys are the preferred breeding habitat of the roselaari Red Knot.

There is then the potential that the tight timing of arrival and breeding of these birds may no longer coincide with the peak abundance of prey populations, something that has already been shown in many species that breed in the Arctic. Thus, understanding fully the timing of their breeding on the ridge is essential for understanding future climate change impacts.

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Pinpoint GPS unit attached to an adult Red Knot.

To better understand the latter portion of the timing of Red Knot breeding on the Alaskan ridges, Jim and Luke began deploying pinpoint GPS dataloggers on adults to determine when they depart the breeding grounds, the time they spend on migratory stop over sites, and the length of migration, . This year we deployed units that have already started returning data on migratory locations and duration. It will be exciting to see how the birds differ, or don’t.

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Luke checks out the placement of the pinpoint GPS unit on this adult roselaari Red Knot.

I had an excellent month on the peninsula. Apart from learning a great deal about these birds and their breeding ecology, I gained more exposure to excellent bird life in one of my favorite ecosystems. At the end of the season Luke and I shifted our focus to the coastal areas to attempt trapping of staging Juvenile Red Knots for more pinpoint deployment. I’ll highlight the rewards from the effort in my next post. In the end the Red Knot work was the cessation of an excellent summer of Alaskan bird study.

The season was successful thanks to a great field crew apart from Jim, Luke, and myself: Nick Hajdukovich who handled the lead for the first part of the season before Lucas joined in the field, Sarah Godin, Bethany, and Charlie and Linnaea Wright.